Very often, cramps affect the muscles of the legs, and many experience this phenomenon in childhood, for example, when swimming in cold water. And if in this case the reason, as a rule, lies in the reaction of muscle tissue to a sharp change in temperature, then in some other situations cramps in the muscles of the legs are caused by causes that require immediate help and treatment. Particular attention should be paid to convulsions that occur at night, appear frequently or do not pass for a long time, accompanied by other disturbing symptoms (severe prolonged pain, convulsions in other parts of the body, headache, etc.). Consider the main reasons for cramping the muscles of the legs, and what are the principles of treatment in such cases.
Causes of cramps in the calf muscles, feet and toes
one. Uncomfortable body position.A long stay in an uncomfortable position, when the vessels that feed the muscles are compressed, and the latter lack oxygen, is often the cause of leg muscle cramps that occur at night in healthy people. In this situation, you should take one of the following actions:
- stand up (take a vertical position);
- vigorously massage the affected muscle;
- while sitting, stretch your leg forward, pull your toes towards you.
2. Physical overload of the leg muscles. Such a situation is possible during intensive training without preliminary warm-up, warming up the muscles, with heavy monotonous physical labor, which causes overstrain. It is possible to help the muscle relax by massaging the limb.
3. Violation of the balance of salts in the body (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium). This condition, in turn, may be associated with other factors:
- lack of micronutrient intake in the body;
- lack of fluid in the body;
- violation of the kidneys;
- food intoxication;
- violation of the functioning of the parathyroid glands;
- uncontrolled intake of diuretics;
- alcohol abuse, etc.
Treatment is prescribed taking into account the provoking factor, while diet therapy and compliance with the drinking regimen are of great importance.
four. Varicose disease. With varicose veins on the legs as a result of metabolic disorders, including in muscle tissues, their periodic spasm is possible. Often this happens after a long walk or standing in one place, and leg muscle cramps can bother you at night, and for this reason, treatment should be comprehensive, using various methods depending on the severity of varicose veins (up to surgical procedures).
5. Transverse flat foot. A change in the arch of the foot can cause spasm of muscle tissue due to improper distribution of loads on the lower extremities, compression of nerve bundles and poor blood supply. Often an unpleasant symptom occurs after a long walk or when wearing narrow shoes, shoes with high heels. To prevent cramps, you should wear special orthopedic shoes or insoles, periodically undergo massage courses and therapeutic exercises.
6. neurological disorders. Pathologies of the nervous system are the probable cause of cramps in the muscles of the legs, which occur regardless of the time of day, the influence of external factors. Such violations may be related to:
- circulatory disorders in the cerebral vessels;
- intervertebral hernia (compression of the nerve roots);
- brain tumors;
- Raynaud’s disease, etc.
Such disorders often require long-term medical treatment, supplemented by physiotherapeutic methods, sometimes surgery is performed.