Diseases of the teeth often cause disruption of normal digestion. Poorly chopped food entering the stomach is not fully absorbed by the body. Among the possible pathologies, a separate place is occupied by enamel hypoplasia, which causes increased fragility of the teeth, violating the correct bite.
Enamel hypoplasia – what is it?
Enamel hypoplasia is more often a congenital anomaly in the development of teeth, which is accompanied by a violation of the formation and development of the surface layer. According to statistics, about 30% of people suffer from it. With the development of pathology, the enamel layer becomes too thin and fragile. Even with a small load on the tooth, it can crumble and break. In most cases, the pathology is congenital in nature and indicates the presence of problems with protein metabolism and the metabolic process in the body.
Types of enamel hypoplasia
By itself, dental disease hypoplasia develops gradually. In view of this, two main forms are distinguished. The first – focal or local, is characterized by the defeat of individual teeth. When examining such patients, dentists detect a violation of the enamel of 2-4 teeth, which are located at a distance from each other. A detailed examination shows damage to the deep layers of enamel, which eventually causes deformation of the tooth, leading to its breakage.
The second type of enamel hypoplasia is the systemic form of the disease. With its development in the patient’s mouth, the defeat of a large number of teeth is diagnosed. In this case, teeth that form in one period of time are exposed to damage. The disease is often congenital in nature and is found in young children.
Focal enamel hypoplasia
Local enamel hypoplasia in most cases has an acquired form. When examining a patient, the presence of 2-3 affected teeth in the oral cavity is revealed. A detailed examination indicates damage to the deep layers, which leads to frequent inflammation. With the progression of the pathology, the tooth is damaged even more.
The complete disappearance of enamel from its surface causes pain. Such changes lead to deformation of the teeth. As a result, almost all patients with this pathology have malocclusion. This increases the load on the muscular apparatus of the lower jaw, making it difficult to eat.
Systemic enamel hypoplasia
Hypoplasia of tooth enamel in a systemic form is characterized by damage to the teeth, which are formed in one time period. Pathology can occur in three forms:
- Color change – yellowish or bright white spots appear on the surface of the tooth. They have clear identical boundaries on the teeth of the same name. More often, changes occur on the vestibular surface, they are different in shape.
- Enamel underdevelopment – a form of systemic hypoplasia, manifested in the formation of dotted, wavy or striated enamel.
- No enamel – a rare and severe form, accompanied by painful sensations when exposed to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli. It manifests itself in the form of the absence of enamel on the crown of the tooth, in the groove covering the tooth, or in the area of the bottom of the cup-shaped recess.
Enamel hypoplasia – causes
Hypoplasia of tooth enamel is often congenital in nature, however, in some cases, the pathology develops even after the birth of the child. A thorough and detailed study of the disease made it possible to identify the following factors that provoke the development of pathology:
- Rhesus conflict between mother and fetus;
- infectious diseases in a woman in the first trimester of pregnancy;
- severe toxicosis;
- birth trauma;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- violation of metabolic processes in the body;
- infectious diseases;
- trauma to the facial part of the skull.
Hypoplasia of the enamel of milk teeth
Enamel hypoplasia in children is a common disease. Pathology is observed in almost every third child. Among the main provoking factors, doctors call infections transferred during pregnancy by a woman (rubella, measles). It should be noted that this form of pathology is in most cases temporary. With the establishment of the bite, it disappears. Lack of attention from doctors can lead to the development of severe forms of caries.
Enamel hypoplasia of permanent teeth
Hypoplasia of tooth enamel in adults is associated with the impact on the body of pathological factors. In most cases, the causes of local enamel hypoplasia are associated with a history of the following diseases:
Enamel hypoplasia – signs
When enamel hypoplasia develops, white spots on the surface of the teeth become one of the first symptoms of the pathology. Such defects occur mainly on the front side of the tooth. Rarely, spots turn yellow. Upon closer examination, it reveals a clear contour. By itself, this phenomenon does not cause pain in the patient.
The second manifestation of enamel underdevelopment are furrows or depressions on the tooth surface. In this case, painful sensations may be absent, however, the very appearance of such defects causes aesthetic discomfort in patients. Enamel hypoplasia becomes noticeable to people close to and around the patient.
The extreme form of enamel hypoplasia is aplasia – the complete absence of enamel. This type of disorder is rare. When diagnosing, a complete or partial loss of enamel on the surface of the teeth is detected. As a result, dentin is exposed – erosive enamel hypoplasia. Patients experience pain when exposed to chemical and thermal stimuli on the teeth.
Forms of tooth enamel hypoplasia
Depending on the nature of the lesion, the following forms of enamel hypoplasia are distinguished:
- spotted – white or yellow spots appear that do not change the structure of the tooth;
- bowl-shaped – the appearance of defects in the enamel in the form of a bowl of various sizes;
- striated – grooves are formed on the affected teeth, which are parallel to the cutting surface of the tooth;
- wavy – many horizontal grooves;
- mixed – the simultaneous presence of the changes described above on different teeth.
Also, experts identify specific forms of dental hypoplasia, named after the scientists who described them:
- Hutchinson’s teeth – Irregular shape of the incisors on the lower or upper jaw. The teeth take the shape of a barrel, the cutting edge – in the shape of a crescent.
- Pfluger teeth – similar to the shape described by Hutchinson, but the incisal edge is of normal shape.
- Fournier teeth – affect the change of the sixth tooth. They take the form of a cone.
Diagnosis of enamel hypoplasia
Doctors are in no hurry to diagnose enamel hypoplasia: the differential diagnosis of this disease makes it possible to exclude possible caries. The initial forms of caries in the stage of spots and mild forms of fluorosis can be mistaken for a violation of the enamel. Because of these features, diagnosis should only be carried out by an experienced specialist. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the results of a visual examination, functional tests (enamel staining with dyes).
Hypoplasia of tooth enamel – treatment
Treatment of enamel hypoplasia directly depends on the stage of the pathology and the severity of the disease. If the patient has single spots that are not visually detectable when talking, do not bring discomfort, therapy is not required. If there are stains on the front of the enamel, they resort to microabrasion – grinding a thin layer with a special paste. This method is effective for single, soft spots. More often, doctors resort to the manufacture of ceramic or composite veneers. When pronounced enamel hypoplasia is detected, metal-ceramic crowns are prescribed.
Prevention of enamel hypoplasia
Spotted enamel hypoplasia is the most common form of pathology. It is diagnosed in both children and adults. However, it, like other types of hypoplasia, can be avoided.
The following rules must be observed:
- Include vitamins and minerals in the diet: calcium, fluorine, vitamins A, B, D and C.
- Timely treatment of diseases during pregnancy and after childbirth.
- Exclusion of contact with infection.
- Ensuring breastfeeding throughout the first year of life.
- Monitoring oral hygiene in a child.
- Dentist visit every six months.