This household appliance has been helping to dry hair for over 75 years – the first sample of this electrical product appeared in the early 40s of the last century. Today, there is a hair dryer in almost every home, and anyone knows the rules for its operation. But the internal structure of the hair dryer is familiar only to a few – we will try to fill this gap in knowledge.

hair dryer

The principle of operation of the hair dryer

The case of budget and most mid-budget devices is made of plastic. And not simple, but heat-resistant, able to withstand decent temperatures. More expensive premium models have metal case. Unlike plastic analogues, the latter does not deform and heats up noticeably less during operation.

The task of the device is to heat the incoming air to the required temperature and dry the object, whether it is hair, in the case of a household appliance, or, for example, wallpaper, in the case of building hair dryers. The latter can heat the air up to 650 degrees, while a good half of ordinary home models are limited to 80⁰С.

Hair dryer attachments

Hair dryers are equipped with various nozzles

Add versatility to the device various nozzles, which are installed on the nozzle. Thus, the device can be turned into a hair dryer comb or hair dryer brush. In addition, the design of the nozzles can be very different, which significantly expands the scope of the device.

Design features

The set of basic elements of any hair dryer – household or construction, cheap or expensive, is not much different. The critical difference in the quality of the details. Some models use mediocre metals and plastics, while others boast high-tech materials such as titanium plating and soft-touch plastics.

Hair dryer device

Structural elements of a hair dryer

The main structural element is the electric motor. Modern technology is based on a low-voltage collector base (12-18 V) with a voltage rectifier. The spiral of the device can be with several windings, which depends on the number of modes: ordinary models have two or three.

heating coil

hair dryer heating coil

The heating element requires good airflow, especially for powerful devices, so the fan not only draws in air for subsequent heating, but also acts as a cooling system. If the temperature inside the case approaches a critical one, the hair dryer turns off automatically. A thermostatic relay with a fuse is responsible for this. Let’s take a closer look at their work.

thermostatic relay

Item includes two contacts located on a bimetallic platform. When the hair dryer is running and the temperature has reached a critical point, the plates heat up and the power circuit opens. After, when the device has cooled down, the contacts are reconnected, and the device can be used again.


Hair dryer thermostat

The thermostatic relay, like other components, can be of different quality. In more expensive models, it works like a clock, while in budget devices it can often turn off for no apparent reason.


The relay can be called the protection of the first line, while the fuse is the last line. If for some reason the thermostat does not work, then after a while the equipment is de-energized by means of a fuse. It is located, as a rule, next to the thermal relay, less often – in the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe handle.

The thermal fuse is disposable item, and cannot be repaired. Depending on the brand of equipment, the resistance of the element also changes, along with the shape. You can buy a fuse at almost any specialized point of sale. Some exotic species should be looked for in service centers where equipment is serviced.


fuse for hair dryer

As for other elements – a power cord and a button, everything here also depends on the specific model. More expensive solutions have a flexible and reliable cable, while budget options are constantly twisted and easily scrapped. In a good half of cases, the button, in addition to turning on the device, acts as a mode switch.

Typical malfunctions

Consider the reasons for the failure of the main parts, because the breakdown of any of them guarantees the failure of the entire product from work, since it will not be possible to use it further without repair. A simple diagnosis can be done on your own if you know the most typical problems of these household appliances.

  1. Hair dryer does not turn on. It is necessary to check the serviceability of the power cord: perhaps its frequent kinks led to an internal break in one of the wires. If a breakage is found, the cord must be replaced. There may be poor contact inside the product, it is necessary to check the entire electrical installation, if repair is required, contact the specialists. If the start button or switch is faulty, it should be replaced. Well, when the reason is in the electric motor, only the master can check it. Replacing or repairing the engine is impractical, it is cheaper to buy a new hair dryer.
  2. The product suddenly turned off The fuse is blown, check it and replace it. If the overheating protection has tripped, you must wait half an hour and turn on the product again.
  3. Can’t turn off hair dryer – the start button or mode control is faulty. Unplug the product from the outlet and call the wizard.
  4. The fan is not spinning: if everything is normal with the power supply, then there is a winding of hair on the shaft, or there is a lot of foreign debris on the impeller blades – clean the shaft and blades.
    Cleaning the fan blades
  5. Air flow does not heat up – check the spiral or threads, most likely, a break has occurred. The correct solution is to replace the coil, not repair it – there is no guarantee that the defect will not recur.
  6. Air does not pass through the device – the air intake or the installed cleaning filter is clogged. Disconnect the appliance from the mains, disassemble and clean the grate from fluff and dust with a soft brush. If the product has a filter, then unscrew the back of the case, carefully remove the filter and clean it – proceed very carefully so as not to damage the delicate device.
    mesh filter
  7. Sometimes when the overheating protection system is activated, a the smell of burning, dust and poplar fluff that got on the spiral could be the cause. It is necessary to clean the heating element and turn on the product again, if a similar defect appears again, contact the service center.

If your home master is easily versed in electrical household appliances, then you will not need the services of professional craftsmen – all of the listed failures can be eliminated on your own.

Safe operation

In order not to visit the service center often and save time and the family budget, it is necessary to clearly fulfill all the operating requirements:

  1. Use only standard, factory-made extension cords.
  2. Inspect the cord before each use of the product and do not wrap it around the handle when storing.
  3. You can only use the supplied nozzles that come with the kit.
  4. Do not use the product in a high humidity environment or expose it to water.
  5. Install a special fine mesh filterexcluding the suction of hair into the device.
  6. In the event of any malfunction, immediately disconnect the product from the mains.
  7. Do not pull the cord from the socket and do not carry the appliance by the cord. Remember that inside its wires are not steel, but copper, which can be damaged by mechanical stress.
  8. Don’t overheat your hair dryerIf you need a device for long-term use, get a professional device designed for long-term use.
  9. Allow the appliance to cool down for at least half an hour before storing it.
  10. Store the product in a dry place, the drawer must be locked.

With the exact implementation of all the recommendations, your hair dryer will work without repair, and your hair will look perfect and stylish.