Candidiasis stomatitis (popularly called “thrush”) is a fungal disease that affects the oral mucosa. Most often, this pathology is diagnosed in children in infancy, but it also occurs in the adult population. In the fight against the disease, an integrated approach is important.
Candidiasis stomatitis – causes
Thrush in the oral cavity is provoked by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. Every person has them in the body, but with the proper functioning of the protective system, they are in a latent form. In the event of a failure, the parasitic fungi from the “sleeping” state become active.
Thrush begins to develop in the mouth – the reasons for this are often as follows:
- The resulting allergic reaction weakens the body’s immune system, which is why it cannot resist the activity of fungi.
- With hormonal failure, suppression of the protective barrier is observed. As a result, the body becomes vulnerable to the influence of pathogens.
- Taking antibacterial drugs negatively affects pathogens: they die. At the same time, beneficial flora is also destroyed. As a result, due to imbalance, the fungus actively begins to operate.
- Smoking weakens the antifungal and antibacterial properties of saliva. As a result, due to the lack of a deterrent, pathogenic microorganisms are activated. In addition, the resins released during smoking provoke the development of diseases of the oral cavity, against which the thrush occurs.
- Use of toothpaste or mouthwash containing sodium sulfate. This substance causes increased dryness of the mucous membrane, which negatively affects the microflora.
- During chemotherapy or radiation therapy, microorganisms (both pathogenic and good) die: this weakens the immune system. As a result, favorable conditions are created for the development of candidal stomatitis.
- At increased risk are people who are HIV-infected or suffer from other diseases that weaken the immune system.
Acute candidal stomatitis
This form of pathology is pronounced. Such a thrush in the mouth is accompanied by the formation of a white or bluish-whitish coating, which looks like a curd mass. After scraping it, a hyperemic surface is visible. Sometimes, after removing the plaque, you can see bleeding erosion. If the situation is left to chance, the problem will get worse.
Chronic candidal stomatitis
Pathology passes into this form of development in the absence of proper treatment at the initial stage of the disease. Chronic fungal stomatitis is accompanied by difficulty in swallowing. In addition, with such a pathology, there is a burning sensation or pain in the oral cavity. At the same time, changes occur in the mucous membrane: it becomes thinner and becomes bright red. Lesions may appear on the surface.
Candidiasis stomatitis – symptoms
Each form of pathology is characterized by its own clinical picture, which allows you to see what the thrush looks like in the mouth. However, there are a number of common signs that appear at any stage of the disease. These include the following symptoms:
- burning sensation;
- taste distortion;
- dryness of the oral mucosa;
- bleeding gums;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- pain that occurs when eating;
- increase in body temperature;
- bad breath.
Pseudomembranous candidal stomatitis
This form of the disease is characterized by the following three stages:
- Light – a stage of pathology that proceeds without alarming signals. The only thing that the patient can complain about in this case is a whitish coating on the tongue, which is easily removed without leaving erosions or other lesions.
- Moderate – such a thrush in the mouth has more pronounced symptoms than at the initial stage of the development of the disease. Plaque affects most of the mucosa (such a formation is difficult to remove due to ingrowth into tissues). At the same time, there is an increase in nearby lymph nodes.
- heavy – candidal stomatitis, in which there is a deterioration in the general condition of the patient. A dark plaque appears on the oral mucosa, under which there are bleeding sores. Cracks form at the corners of the mouth. Lymph nodes increase in size and hurt on palpation. What such candidal stomatitis looks like, the photo shows. A patient diagnosed with this form of thrush should undergo therapy under the supervision of a doctor. For this reason, treatment is carried out in a hospital.
Atrophic candidiasis stomatitis
This type of pathology is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pain when talking
- the appearance of scales and cracks on the lips;
- dry mouth;
- inability to open the mouth wide.
The main manifestation of candidal stomatitis of the atrophic type is expressed in a strong reddening of the oral mucosa. It is even sometimes called “fiery”. With this type of pathology, there is practically no plaque: in rare cases, there is a slight accumulation in the deep folds of the tongue. In addition, atrophy of the papillae occurs on it, due to which the pattern is completely smoothed out. The tongue itself turns bright red. Sometimes teeth marks can appear on it.
Hyperplastic candidal stomatitis
This is a chronic form of the inflammatory process, accompanied by itching and increased dryness in the oral cavity. Such candidal stomatitis in the tongue is manifested by hyperemia. At the same time, whitish-gray plaques form on the mucosa. Such a plaque is tightly soldered to tissue cells, so its removal is accompanied by soreness and bleeding.
Candidiasis stomatitis – treatment
In most cases, the process of making a diagnosis by a specialist does not cause difficulties, since all the symptoms characteristic of the pathology are visible on the face. The doctor knows how to treat thrush in the mouth, and what is best to prescribe in each case.
To choose the right therapy tactics, the doctor will recommend the patient to undergo such a study:
- Pass a smear that allows you to identify the type of fungus attacking and its sensitivity to certain drugs.
- Make a general blood test.
- Perform a serological test to help identify antibodies to certain diseases.
Candidiasis stomatitis should be treated comprehensively. In the absence of timely proper therapy, serious complications will occur. The most common side effects are:
Candidiasis stomatitis – clinical guidelines
If you notice the first alarming symptoms, you should seek medical help as soon as possible. Time delay will only exacerbate the situation.
If thrush is found in the mouth, it is advisable to carry out treatment, adhering to the following recommendations:
- Refuse for the period of therapy from tea, coffee and other hot drinks. The emphasis is recommended to be made on clean drinking water, juices, compote. In this case, it is better to drink drinks with a straw.
- Eat soft foods that are easy to swallow. For example, meat or tough foods can be ground with a blender. In addition, it is recommended to enrich the diet with cereals and boiled vegetables.
- After each meal, rinse your mouth with salted water.
Those who have had candidal fungal stomatitis at least once in their lives are at risk: they are highly likely to relapse. For this reason, it is important for them to pay special attention to the prevention of thrush. It includes the following activities:
- Take good care of your mouth (brush your teeth, floss).
- Strengthen immunity.
- Wash your hands regularly before preparing and eating food.
- Rinse your mouth after each medication.
Candidiasis stomatitis – drugs
All appointments must be made by a doctor. Self-medication is unacceptable! Only a doctor knows how to treat fungal stomatitis. When prescribing therapy, he will take into account the general characteristics of the body and the age of the patient.
In the treatment of candidal stomatitis, the following groups of drugs are used:
- antimycotic (Fluconazole, Miconazole, Clotrimazole, Nystatin);
- antihistamines (Loratadin, Tavegil, Suprastin);
- antiseptic (Rotokan, Yoks, Miramistin);
- painkillers (Anestezin, Hexoral Tabs);
- anti-inflammatory (Actovegin, Eucalyptus M, Kameton);
- drugs that accelerate wound healing (Karotolin, Solcoseryl).
Treatment of the oral cavity with candidal stomatitis
Complex therapy also includes local treatment. It is aimed at restoring the damaged mucosa and fighting pathogenic microorganisms. How to cure thrush in the mouth – the doctor will give the best recommendations. He will select a medication that will help get rid of the problem in a short time.
To eliminate fungal stomatitis, it is important to carry out treatment with careful treatment of the oral mucosa with the help of such drugs:
- combined agents with antimycotic and anti-inflammatory effects (Korsodil, Miramistin);
- antimicrobials (Nystatin or Decamine ointment);
- painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs (Parodium, Hexoral).