Onychomycosis is one of the most common infectious diseases of squamous cells. Treatment of the fungus is a long and complex process that requires a comprehensive individual approach and discipline. The effectiveness of therapy also depends on the stage of the pathology; advanced onychomycosis is more difficult to treat.
How can you get nail fungus?
The causative agents of the group of diseases under consideration are easily transmitted by household contact from an infected carrier to a healthy person. The main causes of nail fungus are pathogenic microorganisms of 3 types:
- mold (attached to an existing lesion).
How can you get toenail fungus?
Onychomycosis of the feet is more often provoked by dermatophytes. In advanced cases of the disease, molds colonize damaged areas. The fungus on the toenails can be “caught” in the following places:
- beach at any reservoirs;
- swimming pool;
- shared shower in a hostel or hostel, hotel.
There is a high risk of infection with onychomycosis even at home if one of the family members suffers from this pathology. Similarly, infection easily occurs when visiting a sick person. Dermatophyte spores are resistant to temperature fluctuations and most detergents, so they remain viable by invading tissues:
- fleecy floor coverings;
- socks and other hosiery;
- home slippers;
- street shoes;
- bed linen;
- blankets and blankets.
How can you get nail fungus on your hands?
The defeat of the fingers of the upper extremities is a little less common, since the patient notices the disease earlier and its treatment is faster. The main causes of onychomycosis in this case are candida (yeast). If the pathology starts, molds join them. Infection with these microorganisms occurs by contact-household methods, through the following objects:
- hand towels;
- manicure tools and materials, including varnishes;
- simulators in sports halls;
- general bar soap;
- handrails in public transport.
Nail fungus – symptoms
Infection with pathogenic spores is not always obvious, microorganisms are able to disguise themselves as other diseases of the horny plates and skin. There are several clinical manifestations by which nail fungus is diagnosed – signs on the legs:
- itching of the epidermis around the affected area;
- discoloration of nails (yellow-green, gray, brown-black, white);
- delamination of plates;
- the appearance on the surface of the nails of longitudinal and transverse stripes, spots;
- deterioration in the structure of the horny tissue (fragility, fragility, thickening or thinning);
- bad smell from the feet.
Symptoms of pathology on the hands:
- slowing down the growth of nails;
- change in color, structure and shape of the plates;
- the presence of convex stripes, scratches and spots on the nails;
- delamination, fragility of horny tissue;
- redness of the skin near the damaged area.
Drug treatment of nail fungus
It is difficult to completely get rid of onychomycosis, because the spores of the pathogen die only at 100 degrees Celsius. Successful treatment of nail fungus includes a set of measures that involves:
- external therapy of horny plates;
- internal intake of antimycotic drugs;
- regular disinfecting treatment of rooms and any surfaces with which the patient comes into contact.
Nail fungus is treated at home, so the dermatologist patient requires maximum organization and discipline. You can not interrupt the therapeutic course or finish it before the time recommended by the specialist. Even if all the symptoms of onychomycosis have disappeared, spores may still be present in the horny tissue, and over time the disease will resume.
Varnishes for the treatment of nail fungus
In the early stages of the pathology, when the area of the lesion is still minimal and the structure of the plates has not changed significantly, sparing local therapy can be dispensed with. It consists in the systematic application of varnishes that eliminate onychomycosis – treatment is carried out by one of the following means:
- Domix and others.
It is necessary to apply varnishes from nail fungus for a long time. The course of treatment is at least 6 months and can last 1-2 years. The application of the listed local preparations is carried out strictly according to the instructions, twice a week or less, depending on the active ingredient. To normalize the appearance of the plates, it is allowed to cover them with a standard cosmetic varnish for individual use.
Ointments for nail fungus
The action of the described group of medicines is more intense. The active components of creams and ointments from onychomycosis penetrate deep into the horny tissues and destroy the membrane of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing their reproduction and spread of spores. With the help of such local remedies, the fungus of the toenails and hands, mycoses of the epidermis around the plates are treated. The presented therapy is often combined with the use of specialized varnishes.
Treatment of nail fungus is carried out by such drugs:
- Mikozan and others.
Tablets for the treatment of nail fungus
Chronic and severe forms of onychomycosis with a rapid increase in affected areas require systemic therapy. Effective treatment of nail fungus in this situation involves taking a course of special tablets. This group of medicines prevents the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms and the colonization of keratinized surfaces. Effective drugs for the treatment of nail fungus:
- Itrazol and analogues.
Preparations for removing the nail affected by the fungus
During the treatment of the disease in question, it is necessary to constantly remove dead horny cells infected with spores. Thanks to this procedure, the treatment of nail fungus is faster and more efficient, and the plates are easier to recover. You can get rid of the damaged surface by sawing it, but you must first soften the keratinized thickened tissue. The doctor will help you choose an active drug to remove the nail plate and facilitate its removal, for example:
- Nail disease;
- Onychoplast and others.
Treatment of nail fungus folk remedies
Doctors recommend using alternative therapy options as supportive measures. Folk remedies for the treatment of nail fungus have a pronounced, but short-term antiseptic effect. They are not effective enough, especially with advanced onychomycosis, therefore they are used only for preliminary treatment of infected surfaces and shoes.
Treatment of nail fungus with vinegar
The causative agents of the described disease are sensitive to an acidic environment. One proven method for treating onychomycosis is to use natural vinegar or its essence. This product prevents the growth of pathogenic colonies and the spread of spores, which deprives microorganisms of nutrients for reproduction. Treatment of nail fungus with vinegar is carried out in several ways.
- warm (about 50-55 degrees) water – 2-2.5 liters;
- table or apple cider vinegar (9%) – 200 ml.
Preparation and application
- Remove dead layers of nails.
- Pour water into a basin.
- Add vinegar.
- Place your feet or hands in the solution.
- Dry your nails after 15 minutes.
- Treat the affected areas with the prescribed drug.
- Repeat the manipulation 3-4 times a week.
- vinegar essence (70%) – 1 teaspoon;
- vodka – 1 teaspoon;
- purified glycerin – 1 teaspoon.
Preparation and application
- Mix all ingredients until smooth.
- Saturate a piece of cotton pad with the resulting product.
- Apply a compress to damaged nails, preferably after a bath.
- Remove lotion after 15 minutes.
- Carry out the procedure every day for a week.
Treatment of nail fungus with hydrogen peroxide
The specified solution belongs to highly active antiseptics, therefore it is similarly suitable for treating contaminated surfaces. Treatment of nail fungus with peroxide is recommended for the initial stages of onychomycosis or small affected areas. Hydrogen peroxide can be additionally used as a prevention of pathology, wipe shoes from the inside with it.
- water (temperature about 50 degrees) – 2 l;
- hydrogen peroxide 3% – 4 tbsp. spoons.
Preparation and application
- Dissolve peroxide in water.
- Place your feet or hands in the liquid.
- Keep the nails in the pelvis for 15 minutes if the hands are affected and 40 minutes if the legs are infected.
- Repeat the procedure 2 times a day.
- Therapy is continued for 7-8 days.
After the bath, it is necessary to wipe the treated areas dry and proceed to the next stage of treatment. Cavities formed by exfoliated nails should be filled with undiluted peroxide. Lotions from cotton pads impregnated with an antiseptic are applied to infected surfaces. After 20 minutes, the compresses should be removed and the hands or feet should be dried with a clean towel.
Treating nail fungus with baking soda
The presented product has pronounced softening properties, has a weak antiseptic and drying effect. Treatment of nail fungus with folk methods includes pre-treatment of horny plates with soda paste. This simplifies the removal of damaged tissue and ensures high-quality surface disinfection.
- freshly squeezed lemon juice – 1 teaspoon;
- baking soda – 1-2 teaspoons;
- warm water – 1 teaspoon.
Preparation and application
- First, mix baking soda with water until you get a thick but still crumbly paste.
- Add lemon juice to the mixture.
- Spread the resulting mixture over infected nails.
- Remove the soda paste after 20 minutes.
- Wipe the treated areas with a paper towel.
- Repeat the manipulation every 2-3 days.
Treatment of nail fungus with iodine
The described preparation is used mainly in its pure form. The simplest folk treatment of toenail fungus with iodine is to lubricate the affected areas with alcohol tincture (5% concentration). It is important to apply the product exclusively to the horny plates, it can damage the surrounding skin and cause a chemical burn, which will lead to the spread of spores to the epidermis.
Alternative iodine treatment for nail fungus
- Fukortsin – 20 ml;
- alcohol tincture of iodine – 20 ml;
- vinegar 9% – 20 ml.
- Lubricate all nails with Fukortsin twice a day for 2 weeks.
- The next 14 days are similarly treated with iodine.
- For the last half a month, apply only acetic solution.
Treatment of nail fungus with a laser
Modern medical technologies help to get rid of onychomycosis as quickly and painlessly as possible. Laser treatment of nail fungus allows you to destroy the entire mycelium in the plates and matrix without destroying healthy horny cells. In combination with conservative methods of therapy, these manipulations produce the most pronounced effect. Doctors advise using laser treatment for nail fungus at any stage of the pathology – the advanced form of onychomycosis is eliminated in just a few procedures.