The composition of toothpaste - what do we actually brush our teeth with?

The composition of toothpaste includes a variety of chemical and natural ingredients on which the effectiveness of the product depends. The list of ingredients indicated on the packaging helps to understand the whole variety of hygiene products and choose the right one.

What is in the toothpaste?

The choice of toothpaste with the optimal composition is a more important issue than many people think. The oral mucosa has high suction properties – literally in a matter of seconds, chemicals from toothpaste penetrate the bloodstream. Particular attention should be paid to hygiene products for children – they can swallow the paste by accident or on purpose because of the pleasant smell and taste, and many substances can accumulate in the body.

Before you start analyzing the composition of toothpaste, you need to know that all these hygiene products can be classified into four main groups:

  1. Hygienic toothpaste – the composition of such toothpaste, intended for daily care, includes components that remove dirt and bacteria from the surface of tooth enamel.
  2. Preventive toothpaste – it includes elements that prevent diseases of the teeth and oral cavity, such toothpastes are used in courses.
  3. Medical toothpaste – helps to get rid of some diseases in the initial stage, since the composition of the toothpaste of this group includes medicines, their use should be agreed with the doctor.
  4. Teeth whitening paste – contains abrasive particles designed to remove calcified contaminants and polish the enamel, requires careful use, it can damage tooth enamel.

composition of toothpaste

Fluoride in toothpaste

The element fluorine in the composition of toothpaste appeared in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The benefit of fluorine is that it causes enamel remineralization due to the binding of calcium and other minerals. Fluoride-containing paste makes teeth stronger and more resistant to acidic environments. For all the benefits, fluoride in toothpaste can also be harmful – its excess is toxic to humans and causes thyroid problems, bone fragility, and in men – a decrease in testosterone levels. Therefore, most dentists are still against fluoride in toothpaste.

titanium dioxide in toothpaste

One of the controversial ingredients often found in toothpaste is titanium dioxide. This ingredient gives the product a beautiful snow-white color, which evokes pleasant associations with a dazzling smile and stimulates the purchase of toothpaste. It also whitens tooth enamel. Experts say that titanium dioxide is absolutely safe and is easily excreted when it enters the body, but some studies refute this and warn of its danger.

silicon dioxide in toothpaste

Silicon dioxide, which is part of the chemical composition of toothpaste, is an abrasive component that allows you to clean the enamel from plaque and make your teeth whiter. Silicon dioxide crystals are very hard, so this paste should not be used by people with thin enamel and sensitive teeth.

The second important quality of silicon dioxide is the ability to influence some of the physical qualities of toothpaste (viscosity, stability, fluidity), while the substance itself does not enter into chemical interaction with other components and is not a nutrient medium.

chemical composition of toothpaste

triclosan in toothpaste

Such a component in the composition of toothpaste, like triclosan, gives the product a pronounced antibacterial effect. It destroys bacteria in the mouth and reduces the intensity of their reproduction, which gives fresh breath, but many experts consider this component, which is part of the toothpaste, dangerous. In addition to harmful, triclosan destroys the beneficial microflora of the oral cavity. Prescribe this component and the weakening of the immune system, toxic effects, hormonal disorders and the thyroid gland.

Hydroxyapatite in toothpaste

Many people are interested in the answer to the question, what composition of toothpaste helps to cure caries, and the answer to it is hydroxyapatite. This innovative material has only recently begun to be included in oral hygiene products, but it has already gained its fans. Hydroxyapatite is almost identical to the tissues of the teeth, due to which it easily binds to the bone structure of the tooth and strengthens it. On the basis of this substance, dental ceramics are produced, which take root very well on natural tissues.

Toothpastes with hydroxyapatite:

  • replenish the deficiency of minerals in the enamel;
  • treat caries and prevent its occurrence;
  • eliminate plaque on enamel and gently whiten teeth;
  • reduce the sensitivity of teeth to sour, hot and cold.

Xylitol in toothpaste

It is very important that the composition of children’s toothpaste does not include sugar, but the taste of the product should be sweet. Xylitol is a natural product found in berries and fruits, and is a popular sugar substitute not only in toothpastes, but also in many foods and medicines. The use of xylitol instead of sugar helps to slow down the development of bacteria that cause caries, prevents the drying of the mouth by stimulating saliva, which is very important for people suffering from excessive dryness of the oral mucosa. It has xylitol and anti-inflammatory effect.

composition of children's toothpaste

Sorbitol in toothpaste

Sorbitol, which is part of toothpastes, is obtained from glucose and from the fruits of some plants, it has a sweetening effect and is a prophylactic against caries. This substance is practically not absorbed by the body, it is often used in the food industry, added to cosmetics, medicines. In toothpaste, sorbitol is a moisture-retaining agent – it does not allow the product to dry out, even if the tube is left open. Since sorbitol has a laxative effect, it is undesirable to purchase a paste for children with it in the composition.

calcium carbonate in toothpaste

Many people think that calcium toothpaste is very useful for teeth. Calcium carbonate is ordinary chalk and it is included in toothpaste not to restore enamel, but as an abrasive component. During rinsing, calcium carbonate is completely rinsed out without affecting the teeth.

Calcium, which has a positive effect on the teeth, should be in an easily digestible form – lactate, citrate or glycerophosphate.

Glycerin in toothpaste

The glycerin component in the composition of the toothpaste maintains it in the right consistency and prevents it from drying out. But once on the teeth, glycerin covers them with a thin film, and it can be completely removed from the surface of the enamel only with the help of numerous rinses (at least 20 times). Dentists believe that glycerin can contribute to enamel thinning in the long run, so it’s best to avoid it in toothpastes.

Parabens in toothpaste

Parabens – propyl, butyl, ethyl and methyl paraben in toothpaste are preservatives that extend the shelf life of the product. It is allowed to add less than 1% of parabens to cosmetics, since scientists have proven their danger. The accumulation of these substances in the body leads to:

  • hormonal disruptions;
  • oncological diseases (cancer of the breast and other reproductive organs).

In addition, parabens:

  • often cause allergies;
  • corrode the skin and mucous membranes;
  • accelerate the aging of the body.

Harmful ingredient in toothpaste

When buying toothpaste, be sure to look at its composition and the order of the ingredients – the closer the component to the top of the list, the more it is in the product. Harmful substances in toothpaste – list:

  1. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) – These are surfactants that give a thick foam. Surfactants have a very aggressive effect on the body, and even in the composition of toothpaste they are doubly harmful. Surfactants destroy cells, which leads to weakening of the body, allergies, and even Alzheimer’s disease.
  2. Sodium coco sulfate (SCS) – Surfactant, similar in origin and composition to SLS. It is believed that this substance is less toxic, but in reality it differs little from sodium lauryl sulfate, although SCS is often included in toothpastes advertised as an eco-friendly product.
  3. Fluorine – this is a component from the category of “we treat one thing, we cripple the other.” Fluorine is useful for preventing caries, but its excess leads to the destruction of bone and joint tissue, the formation of kidney stones and other serious problems. There is not very much of this element in the paste, but fluorine is also found in many products, and in some regions – in water, which ultimately leads to an overdose. Fluorine in the product may be hidden under other names – tin fluoride, sodium fluoride, monofluorophosphate, aminofluoride.
  4. Triclosan – a strong antibiotic that destroys not only harmful, but also beneficial microflora. As an antibiotic, chlorhexine, metronidazole, formaldehyde, propylene glycol and other components can be added to toothpaste. With prolonged use of pastes with antibiotics, the microflora of the oral cavity dies completely, which leads to an imbalance in the body.
  5. Aluminum lactate (aluminum lactate) – one of the aluminum salts, is an anti-inflammatory component, reduces tooth sensitivity, bleeding gums. The harm of aluminum lactate is that it is absorbed and accumulates in the body, causing problems in the brain – memory impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, etc. In addition, aluminum salts remove calcium, disrupt hemoglobin synthesis, and provoke problems with joints and bones.

harmful substances in toothpaste list

In addition to those already described, toothpaste often contains controversial ingredients that can lead to problems. These substances include:

  • glucosides, for example, coco glucoside, decyl glucoside, sodium lauryl sarcosinate, cocamidopropyl betaine – mild anionic surfactants;
  • titanium dioxide – clarifier;
  • saccharin, a synthetic sweetener considered carcinogenic by many doctors;
  • sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (sodium CMC) is a stabilizer that causes allergies, indigestion and other problems.

What should be in toothpaste?

Any product that is mass-produced cannot be completely without harmful or questionable components – nothing can be done about it. To reduce their harmfulness, you need to purchase a product in which harmful components are in a minimum amount, and useful ones are closer to the top of the list. Useful components of toothpastes:

  1. Calcium in the form of lactate, citrate or glycerophosphate – calcium paste for sensitive teeth promotes enamel remineralization and clogs the dentin tubules, which helps to reduce sensitivity.
  2. Aloe Vera Extract – reduces inflammation and heals damaged gums.
  3. tea tree extract – natural mild antibiotic, promotes teeth whitening.
  4. mint extract – refreshes the mouth.
  5. oak extract – anti-inflammatory component.
  6. Algae extract – Strengthens gums and teeth.
  7. Coal – it contains any black toothpaste, is a cleansing component.
  8. Hydroxyapatite – strengthens teeth.
  9. Xylitol is a safe sweetener.
  10. soda, salt – the safest abrasives.
  11. Gum, food grade glycerin – natural thickeners.
  12. Essential oils – have anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antibacterial and other beneficial effects.

toothpaste for sensitive teeth

The safest toothpaste in terms of composition – rating

To brush your teeth without creating problems, you need the safest toothpaste in terms of composition. Toothpastes without SLS and SLES:

  1. Silca Multicomplex.
  2. President Classic.
  3. Natura Siberica Arctic protection.
  4. Splat (Sensitive, Biocalcium, Sea Minerals, Organic, Green Tea, Extreme White).
  5. New pearls with calcium.
  6. ROCS (for children, standard, Energy, Bionica, coffee and tobacco).
  7. Grandma Agafya’s recipes.
  8. Jason Natural Power smile, marine freshness.
  9. Biomed Superwhite.

the safest toothpaste

Pastes with hydroxyapatite:

  1. Apprentice.
  2. Theodent.
  3. Miradent Mirasensitive Hap.
  4. Curaprox be you.
  5. Splat Juicy.
  6. Parodontol Active.

the safest toothpaste

Pastes with calcium:

  1. PRESIDENT Unique.
  2. Splat with biocalcium.
  3. ROCS active calcium.
  4. New pearl sage with calcium.
  5. TianDE liquid calcium.
  6. Himalaya Herbals.

the safest toothpaste

Pastes with the most natural composition:

  1. Jason Natural Sea Fresh.
  2. Splat Special Organic.
  3. Green People Natural Organic Children Mandarin & Aloe Vera Toothpaste.
  4. Weleda Salt Toothpaste.
  5. Theodent.
  6. Marvis.
  7. Himalaya Herbals.

the safest toothpaste