Aphthous stomatitis - what does it look like, why does it occur, and how to treat it?

Aphthous stomatitis is characterized by doctors as an inflammatory process of the oral mucosa, accompanied by the formation of erosions – aft. The disease can occur in both adults and children; in most cases, the sick person does not pose a threat to others.

What is aphthous stomatitis?

Dentists define aphthous stomatitis as a sluggish disease of the inflammatory mucosa, in which there are aphthae in the mouth, causing the patient a lot of unpleasant sensations – burning and soreness, aggravated during eating. The healing of erosions lasts a long time – up to 10 or more days, and due to problems with the immune system, the process can be delayed or relapsed. Exacerbation of aphthous stomatitis may be accompanied by fever, swollen lymph nodes.

Aphthous stomatitis – causes

The mechanism of development and causes of aphthous stomatitis are not fully understood, but doctors have enough information to explain the etiology of the disease with human immune problems – when they appear, the disease proceeds with relapses, and healing is very slow. The development of the disease is provoked by:

  • autoimmune conditions;
  • systemic diseases of the blood, gastrointestinal tract;
  • herpes, measles, adenovirus, diphtheria;
  • immunodeficiency;
  • Crohn’s disease;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • reactive arthritis;
  • lack of vitamins B, C and some elements – zinc, iron, folic acid, selenium.

causes of stomatitis

Aphthous stomatitis – etiology

Often subjected to relapses of aphthous stomatitis, people wonder – what causes aphthae in the mouth. There are two theories:

  1. There is a theory that the disease occurs when the immune system does not recognize saliva molecules and attacks them, causing the formation of aphthous erosions. This immune deficiency often results in harsh chemicals being present all the time, causing relapses.
  2. According to another theory, the response of the immune system provokes hemolytic streptococcus present in the mouth.

A connection between aphthous stomatitis and sodium lauryl sulfate has been noted. This foaming agent is used in the manufacture of oral care products. Regular use of such toothpastes causes damage to the mucous membrane, which becomes more sensitive to irritants, especially to substances with high acidity. The relationship between aphthous stomatitis and toothpastes with sodium lauryl sulfate has been clinically proven, as soon as patients refused these drugs, there was a significant improvement or complete recovery.

Another factor that provokes an outbreak of the disease is an allergic reaction. To identify the allergen that causes aphthae, it is necessary to track nutrition and keep a food diary. Especially often aphthous stomatitis is caused by cereals containing gluten:

  • rye;
  • wheat;
  • buckwheat;
  • barley.

Dangerous can be:

  • citrus;
  • apples;
  • pineapples;
  • seafood;
  • chocolate;
  • figs;
  • strawberry;
  • tomatoes;
  • cheeses;
  • nutritional supplements.

The frequency of occurrence of aphthae in women is often associated with the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy, many expectant mothers observe remission of the disease. Genetic dependence has also been confirmed by research – identical twins are twice as likely to suffer from aphthous stomatitis together than twins. It has also been noted that if parents suffered from the disease, then it is likely to affect children as well.

Acute aphthous stomatitis

Very often, the reason that aphthae appeared in the oral cavity is injury to the mucosa. Acute aphthous stomatitis can begin with biting of the mucous membrane, damage by a fragment of a tooth, a prosthesis, solid food. This factor of the onset of the disease is noted by about 40% of patients. If in the future trauma to the mucosa is excluded, the disease may no longer recur. Aft healing lasts about 2 weeks.

Chronic aphthous stomatitis

Chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a sluggish form of the disease, in which relapses are replaced by remissions. Chronization of the disease is facilitated by frequent injuries of the mucosa, the inferiority of the immune system, the use of aggressive oral care products. Stress, neuropsychic overstrain in themselves do not cause aphthous stomatitis, but in the presence of other factors contribute to the chronicity of the disease.

Aphthous stomatitis – symptoms

You can suspect a disease in yourself if you know how aphthous stomatitis manifests itself. Often, with an exacerbation of the disease, there is pain when swallowing and talking, lack of appetite, loss of taste, bad breath. Temperature with aphthous stomatitis may appear if the disease is accompanied by a strong inflammatory process or when another infection is attached. Aphthous stomatitis, the photo of which can be seen below, comes in different forms.

aphthous stomatitis photoaphthous stomatitis photoaphthous stomatitis photo

Forms of aphthous stomatitis:

  1. fibrous form – the most common variety, painful aphthae in this case appear in the folds, on the mucous membrane of the lips, aphthous stomatitis on the tongue is also possible, the rashes heal after 1-2 weeks, over time, the disease is likely to become chronic.
  2. Necrotic Form – with this form, aphthae cause dystrophic disorders that occur against the background of necrobiosis and necrosis of the epithelium tissue, aphthae are practically not painful, heal up to 1 month.
  3. Granular shape – develops against the background of damage to the ducts of the small salivary glands, next to which painful aphthae appear, erosion heals up to 3 weeks, this form can be provoked by a slight cold, hypothermia.
  4. Scarring form – with this form, small salivary glands and connective tissue are affected, rashes are observed in the pharynx and on the anterior palatine arches, small aphthae in the initial stage quickly turn into painful ulcers, after prolonged healing (up to 3 months), noticeable scars remain.
  5. Deforming shape – the most severe and deep form, ulcers are painful and heal very slowly, leading to deformation of the lips, palatine arches, soft palate.

Aphthous stomatitis – treatment

After identifying the disease in a person, the question arises of how to treat aphthous stomatitis. This question should be answered by a doctor – a dentist or an otolaryngologist – after the diagnosis. The goal of treatment is not always a complete cure – in many cases only a stable remission can be achieved. The complex of therapeutic measures includes general and local treatment, the choice of drugs is determined by the severity of the symptoms.

Aphthous stomatitis – recommendations

It is desirable to treat acute and recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a complex way – with this approach, a quick recovery and long-term remission are more likely. Five key areas of complex treatment:

  1. Aft processing.
  2. Strengthening immunity.
  3. Exclusion of allergens.
  4. Physiotherapy.
  5. Diet.

Treatment of aphthous stomatitis – drugs

To begin with, doctors prescribe external drugs that relieve pain and promote the healing of aphthae. Vitamin and mineral complexes with vitamins C and B, selenium, zinc, iron, folic acid may also be required. If needed, the doctor may prescribe sedatives, sedatives, or tranquilizers. Aphthous stomatitis – preparations for external use:

  • antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity – hydrogen peroxide, Chlorhexidine, Miramistin;
  • painkillers and anti-inflammatory tablets – Decaliten, Sebidin, Septolete Total, Lizobakt, Geksoral Tabs;
  • anesthetic mixtures with novocaine or lidocaine, anesthetic sprays – Hexoral, Trasilol, Lugol, Lidochlor;
  • anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and wound healing gels – Solcoseryl, Stomatofit A, Holisal, Kamistad.

aphthous stomatitis drugs

If necessary, the doctor prescribes antihistamines:

  • Suprastin;
  • Diazolin;
  • Loratadine;
  • Tavegil.

Immunomodulators are used to strengthen the immune system:

  • Imudon;
  • Immunal;
  • Amexin.

Treatment of aphthous stomatitis with a laser

Laser therapy is a quick treatment of aphthous stomatitis with a laser. This procedure is considered painless and very effective, suitable for the treatment of small patients. During the procedure, the laser acts pointwise on the aphthae, without affecting healthy tissues, and disinfects the affected areas. After laser therapy, the cure occurs as quickly as possible, and the likelihood of relapse is reduced to a minimum.

How to treat stomatitis with folk remedies?

A mild form of aphthous stomatitis can be treated with folk remedies. How to treat aphthous stomatitis at home:

  1. Rinse your mouth with aloe juice – 2 tbsp. juice per 100 ml of water – 2-3 times a day.
  2. Chewing a leaf of aloe – 2-3 times a day.
  3. Treatment of ulcers with alcohol tincture of propolis – aphthae are treated pointwise 2-3 times a day, without affecting healthy areas.

how to treat aphthous stomatitis at home

Diet for aphthous stomatitis

The aphthous form of stomatitis in the exacerbation mode requires a diet, the patient needs:

  1. Eliminate allergens – chocolate, citrus fruits, pineapples, gluten-containing foods, tomatoes, strawberries, strawberries, nuts, seafood, honey.
  2. Exclude salty, pickled foods, dishes containing spices.
  3. Exclude alcohol, fast food, carbonated drinks.
  4. Exclude yeast-containing products – beer, bread.
  5. Include in the basis of the diet – meat, vegetables, cereals, legumes.