The tooth is held in the jaw thanks to the dental ligaments that fix its roots in the bony alveoli. The inflammatory process in these areas, as well as in the periradicular tissues, often occurs against the background of neglected and severe forms of caries, pulpitis, mechanical injuries, and sepsis.
Acute periodontitis, depending on the nature of the exudate, can be purulent or serous. According to the localization of inflammation, pathology is classified into apical (apical) and marginal (marginal) varieties.
Acute serous periodontitis
This form of the disease under consideration is the initial one. It is characterized by the accumulation of periodontal exudate with a low content of purulent masses. Due to the fact that the inflammatory fluid is localized in a closed cavity and compresses the nerve endings, pain occurs when biting on a damaged tooth.
- slight swelling of the face in the area of the affected area;
- feeling of elongation of the causative tooth;
- painless on palpation of carious cavities.
Acute purulent periodontitis
If nothing is done with the serous form of pathology, after a few days it will transform into a purulent variety.
- constant throbbing pain;
- mobility of the damaged tooth;
- noticeable swelling of the face;
- soreness of the gums near the affected tooth when pressed.
It is worth noting that during the X-ray examination of the jaw, no significant changes are visually visible. Therefore, to diagnose the inflammatory process, it is necessary to contact a qualified dentist.
Treatment of acute periodontitis
Basically, conservative therapy of the described pathology is carried out.
For the outflow of exudate and purulent masses, the root canals are opened under infiltration or conduction anesthesia. At the same time, the decay products of the pulp are removed. In acute apical or apical periodontitis, it is enough to expand the apical foramen.
When the disease is accompanied by an abscess and increasing edema, drainage is carried out through open root canals, a gum pocket or an incision along the transitional fold. Antiseptic sanitation is carried out frequently and regularly through washing, rinsing and the introduction of special preparations.
To eliminate the symptoms of periodontitis, drugs of the following groups help:
Relief of inflammation and pain syndrome is performed with using blockades with anesthetic solutions, for example, Lincomycin.
After subsiding of all signs of the disease, dental treatment and canal filling are carried out.
If the tooth is too destroyed or the outflow of exudate is impossible, surgical interventions are used:
- tooth extraction;
- resection of the root apex.