Dental implants - characteristics of all types of prostheses and implantation methods

Dental implants are a complex design that allows you to restore the missing units of the row. It can vary in shape and type of attachment. Implants have contraindications for use: it is important to take this into account before installing them. In addition, this design has its advantages and disadvantages.

The structure of a dental implant

This design consists of three parts:

  • metal screw;
  • abutment;
  • crowns.

The metal pin is made of titanium or zirconium. Both of these materials are bioinert. Titanium dental implants are suitable for most people. Zirconia pins are recommended for patients allergic to titanium. In addition, metal screws vary in shape, for example, they can be hexagonal, conical, planar. It is worth noting that each manufacturer introduces its own specifics into its products.

structure of a dental implant

An abutment is a structural element that connects a metal pin to a crown. As a rule, this “detail” rises above the gum by 2-2.5 mm. The abutment is made of metal, ceramic, plastic, or a combination of these materials. To date, several types of such “details” are known:

  • standard;
  • angular;
  • ball;
  • individual;
  • temporary.

The structure of the dental implant provides for the presence of a crown. This component of the design is made to order in accordance with the shape of the teeth and the color of their enamel. Depending on the material used to make crowns, there are:

  • all-metal;
  • ceramic;
  • cermet.

Dental implants – types, indications and contraindications

By type, the following structures are distinguished:

  1. Collapsible. Such implants consist of several elements that are easily connected to each other or disconnected if necessary. Collapsible designs are convenient in that different abutments with crowns can be attached to the same rod.
  2. Non-separable consist of the same elements as collapsible, only they are connected into one whole. The advantage of these models is that their use minimizes the risk of developing peri-implantitis. Such designs are installed in complex clinical cases.

Dental implants are differentiated in other ways. What are the types of structures: /p>

  • intraosseous;
  • zygomatic;
  • extraosseous;
  • basal;
  • mini implants;
  • cortical.

It is important to remember that dental implantation has indications and contraindications. This procedure is recommended in the following cases:

  • adentia;
  • looseness of teeth;
  • inability to wear removable dentures;
  • malocclusion;
  • missing one or more teeth.

It is important for parents to understand whether dental implants are installed in children. Experts agree that such a procedure is not advisable to perform before the age of 18. They argue their position by the fact that as the child grows up, the size of the jaw bones and teeth also changes. For this reason, childhood implants may become too small over time and may need to be reinstalled. For small patients, in the absence of one or more units, other prosthetic options are recommended.

Dental implants have the following contraindications:

  • infectious diseases of the oral cavity (gingivitis, stomatitis and other pathological conditions provoked by pathogenic microorganisms);
  • malfunction of the immune system;
  • severe diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • blood clotting disorder;
  • mental disorders;
  • acute form of tuberculosis;
  • pregnancy;
  • rheumatic diseases of the connective tissue;
  • malignant formations;
  • hypertonicity of masticatory muscles.

Intraosseous implants

intraosseous implants

The name itself speaks for itself. These designs are implanted into the jaw bone. When the metal rod takes root, it becomes part of the jaw system. There are the following types of intraosseous dental implants:

  1. Root-shaped. The metal rod looks like a threaded cone.
  2. Plate forms. Such implants are deeply placed in the bone tissue and are securely fixed in it. They are recommended for use only in cases where the patient’s bone tissue is severely thinned.
  3. Combined modelscombining elements of lamellar and root-shaped structures.

Extraosseous implants

These models are fixed in the periosteum or in the gum. A dental implant can be:

  1. Subperiosteal. This type of construction is attached to the periosteum. More often, these dental implants are used for adentia to restore a smile.
  2. Stabilization. This type of implant is used to strengthen loose teeth. They are pins that are inserted into the living root and fixed in the periosteum.
  3. Intramucosal. These are miniature designs that are inserted into the gum to a depth of no more than 2 mm. This procedure is indicated for the aesthetic improvement of the smile.

Mini implants

These structures are designed to fix removable dentures. Mini implants in dentistry are used as temporary solutions. Their significant advantage is their low cost.

At the same time, mini-implants have many disadvantages:

  • low strength;
  • quickly fail;
  • cannot withstand heavy loads.

Cortical implants

The main advantage of this design is that it is fixed in the deep bone layer. It is also called cortical. The crown of a tooth on an implant is no different from those used in other types of structures. Cortical models are a real find for patients who were previously contraindicated for such a procedure due to advanced age or the presence of chronic diseases (osteoporosis or diabetes mellitus).

Basal implants

Such models are recommended for installation when the volume of bone tissue is small, so it is impossible to fix other structures on it. These dental prostheses on implants help to restore the missing units without resorting to bone augmentation surgery. Their implantation is considered an express method. In other words, the basal structures are fixed according to a one-stage implantation protocol, which allows immediate loading of the prosthesis. The decision on the appropriateness of using this model is made by the dentist.

Cheekbone implants

The fasteners of these models are very long (they reach 6 cm). These types of dental implants are fixed deeper than basal or cortical ones. In most cases, they are used to restore the top row. A distinctive feature of this model is stability: the risk of displacement of the mount or its loss is reduced to zero. Cheekbone fasteners can immediately be loaded with fixed prostheses.

Dental implants – which are better?

There are many companies specializing in the production of prostheses. The cost of such structures depends on the category of the model. In other words, an economy-class implant is much cheaper than the one that belongs to the premium series. The main countries producing dental implants are Switzerland, Israel, Germany and South Korea. The following brands are considered the most famous:

  • nobel;
  • Osstem;
  • Straumann;
  • Alfa Dent;
  • Noris Medical.

How are dental implants placed?

Before carrying out this procedure, the patient must undergo an examination. According to its results, the specialist will be able to conclude whether the installation of dental implants can be performed in this particular case or not. Such an examination includes:

  • general analysis of blood and urine;
  • blood test for HIV and viral hepatitis;
  • blood chemistry;
  • pregnancy test;
  • orthopantomogram;
  • x-ray of the skull.

Methods of dental implantation

Fixing the structure directly depends on its type. Dental implants can be placed using the following methods:

  • compression;
  • express implantation;
  • complex;
  • basal;
  • classical;
  • laser;
  • bone.

Stages of dental implantation

This procedure is complex, so its implementation requires the specialist to have skills and experience. With an unprofessional approach, implants on the front teeth will be placed incorrectly, and in the future this will turn into serious problems. An amateurish approach to this matter is unacceptable, therefore it is wiser to initially entrust the implementation of such a procedure to an experienced specialist.

stages of dental implantation

How dental implants are placed by the classical method:

  1. An anesthetic is administered (the procedure can be performed under local or general anesthesia).
  2. An incision is made in the gum and in the periosteum and the tissues are peeled off to form a bed where the metal screw will be attached.
  3. A hole of the required diameter is drilled for fixing the fixing element.
  4. The implant core is screwed into the formed bed and closed with a plug to prevent the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms.
  5. The mucosa is sutured and a gum shaper is installed for 2 weeks.
  6. After 14 days, the temporary construct is replaced with a permanent abutment.
  7. After another 2 weeks, the crown is attached.

Dental implants – complications

dental implant complications

Like any other surgical procedure, this procedure comes with its own risks. The most serious complication is rejection of dental implants. There may be such negative consequences:

  • swelling in the area of ​​the prosthesis installation;
  • increase in body temperature;
  • development of infection;
  • bleeding;
  • pain;
  • divergence of seams.

Dental implants – pros and cons

This procedure has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages that implants have, installed instead of fallen teeth, include:

  • restoration of a natural smile;
  • structural durability;
  • fixation reliability;
  • convenience (care for implants is the same as for your own teeth);
  • when installing the structure, neighboring units are not damaged;
  • implantation of the prosthesis stimulates the growth of bone tissue.

Cons of dental implants:

  • engraftment can take up to 6 months;
  • high price;
  • regular preventive examinations at the dentist are required;
  • over time, an allergic reaction to the metal used in the manufacture of fasteners may occur.