Age spots are a pathology, as a result of which certain areas of the skin are excessively stained with pigment (mainly melanin) or acquire a light color due to a lack of pigment. Physicians summarized local skin staining disorders with one term – melanosis.
Pigmentation – causes
Among all cases of violations of the coloring of the skin, excessive pigmentation of the skin prevails. The biological process of melanin production is determined by many different factors:
- hereditary reasons;
- the work of the endocrine system;
- hormonal balance, for example – pregnancy can become the cause of age spots;
- activity of the nervous system, liver and spleen;
- ultraviolet radiation from artificial sources and the sun;
- metabolic features;
- the presence or absence of certain trace elements in the body, magnesium, sulfur, copper, and iron affect the production of melanin.
Violation of the mechanism of formation and distribution of melanin in the skin can be of two types:
- Primary. This is a group of diseases in which hyperpigmentation is always observed and often this is the only clinical sign. These diseases are hereditary, congenital and acquired.
- Secondary. In such cases, hyperpigmentation develops against the background of insolation after suffering dermatoses – atopic dermatitis, acne, lichen planus, vasculitis, eczema, psoriasis. Such secondary defects require little or no medical treatment and often go away on their own.
Infectious or parasitic diseases, long courses of treatment with certain drugs – corticosteroids, cytostatics, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antiarrhythmic and hormonal drugs can activate the production of melanin. Numerous pigment spots can be caused by cosmetic procedures and minimally invasive plastic surgeries – various peels using an unreasonably large amount of active ingredients, the introduction of threads, as well as prolonged use of hormonal ointments.
Primary hypermelanoses are practically not amenable to correction with the help of a cosmetic remedy for pigmentation; the defect can be eliminated with the help of serious therapy or by resorting to surgery. Diseases that cause the formation of age spots:
- Lentigo. This primary hypermelanosis can occur at any age, it manifests itself in the formation of rounded spots up to 2 cm in diameter of various colors – from light brown to almost black. The appearance of lentigo may indicate a precancerous condition, especially if these age spots appear in old age.
- Ephelids (freckles). This type of age spots is typical for fair-skinned people, and it is not a manifestation of pathologies. With this feature, melanin is intensively formed and accumulates in the cells of the epidermis. Freckles appear in childhood, and after 30 years they become less.
- Chloasma. This type of age spots appears in the period from 20 to 50 years. Chloasmae are irregular in shape, often confluent, and colored in shades from dark yellow to dark brown. The reason for the appearance of this type of pigmentation is insolation against the background of changes in hormonal balance, both in women and men. Pigmentation during pregnancy is also chloasma.
- Melasma. Such age spots appear as a result of ultraviolet radiation against the background of diseases of some internal organs, such as the liver. Outwardly, melasma is very similar to chloasma.
- Broca’s pigmented dermatosis. This type of hypermelanosis develops in women with diseases of the digestive tract or ovarian dysfunction. Foci of pigmentation occur in the region of the nasolabial triangle.
Pigment spots on the face
When age spots appear on the face, the causes must be sought among external and internal factors. It could be:
- ultraviolet irradiation;
- hormonal problems.
One of the most common factors is the sun. The skin on the face is always open, so the exposure can be very serious, and the result is pigmentation on the face. In addition to harmless freckles, lentigo spots, chloasma, melasma, Broca’s perioral dermatosis may appear, indicating the presence of health problems.
Pigment spots on the body
Pigmentation on the body may appear after a strong tan – especially often in such cases, pigment spots appear on the back and shoulders. If the reason is only insolation, the spots will brighten over time. Pigmentation on the chest can be lentigo, on the shoulder girdle – age-related freckles. In hormone-dependent areas – near the areola, on the abdomen and inner thighs – chloasma may appear.
Pigment spots on the hands
Ugly pigmentation on the hands – on the hands and forearms – is very often age-related. The skin on the hands, especially on the hands, is thin and is constantly exposed not only to insolation, but to various negative factors, such as cold, household chemicals, detergents, and water. Therefore, senile age spots first appear on the hands, and then on the face, neck, and chest.
Pigment spots on legs
Age-related age spots can also appear on the legs – in old age, the skin loses its ability to quickly recover from exposure to the sun and microdamages, which is why pigmentation occurs. Chloasma may appear on the inner thighs of men and women, indicating hormonal problems in the body. Lentigo spots can also appear on the skin of the legs.
How to get rid of age spots?
The question of how to remove age spots is especially worrisome for the fair sex, regardless of age. Skin-lightening creams and ointments are bought in huge quantities by women, but before you start using external preparations, you need to find out the cause and type of age spots present, and, if necessary, treat with medication.
Cream for age spots
Pigmentation cream is one of the most popular cosmetics in the summer in the presence of freckles. The cosmetic industry offers many brightening creams at various price points:
- Cream Achromin from age spots. The active substance of the product is an extract from licorice root, in addition, the cream contains lactic acid and substances that protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation.
- Cream Neoton for daily use. Contains acids that exfoliate and brighten, and mineral protective filters.
- Cream Skinoren combined action. This tool protects and visually whitens the skin, and in addition – relieves inflammation and destroys bacteria.
Ointment for age spots
A remedy for age spots in the form of an ointment can be purchased at a pharmacy, and the best part is without overpaying, since there are many budget drugs on sale:
- Zinc ointment. The agent is pointwise applied to the skin 2-6 times a day on age spots, and, if desired, on acne and fine wrinkles.
- Ointment Clotrimazole. This drug is applied to the skin 3 times a day, avoiding the area around the eyes.
- Synthomycin ointment. Apply the ointment pointwise 1 time per day on age spots.
- Salicylic ointment. Apply the ointment pointwise up to three times a day.
Mask for age spots
Traditional medicine, such as masks, helps to remove dark spots on the skin. Very useful for excessive pigmentation masks from:
- curdled milk;
- white clay;
- egg white;
You can enhance the effect of the mask if you wipe the skin between procedures:
- 3% hydrogen peroxide;
- lemon juice;
It will take a long time to use such cosmetics, but in some cases, for example, during pregnancy, folk recipes are the only solution.
Age spots – hardware cosmetology
Modern hardware cosmetology will also help answer the question of how to get rid of pigmentation. Only a qualified specialist can choose the appropriate technique, taking into account indications and contraindications, and remove age spots. Procedures that allow you to even out and brighten the skin, remove age spots:
- ultrasonic peeling;
- laser peeling;
You can resort to hardware cosmetology to remove age spots only in the cold season, when there is little sun, otherwise the problem may not be solved, but aggravated. But even with weak ultraviolet radiation, long-term use of strong sunscreens is necessary after the procedure.
To avoid the appearance of unwanted pigmentation, you must:
- Avoid direct sunlight.
- Monitor your health.
- Use high quality sunscreen.
- Do not visit the solarium.
- There are more berries and fruits.