Gingivitis – This is an inflammatory process that occurs in the mucous membrane of the gums. The name itself comes from Latin. Gingiva is the gum, and the combination of the letters “it” at the end of the word indicates inflammation. There is both chronic gingivitis and one that is recurrent. Knowing what causes gingivitis can prevent the development of this inflammatory process or speed up its treatment.
Causes of Gingivitis
All possible causes of gingivitis can conditionally be classified into the following groups:
- external factors;
- internal sources.
The external causes of gingivitis in adults include, first of all, inadequate hygiene. Due to irregular and poor-quality oral care, dental plaques are formed (this is a colony of microorganisms that settles on the surface of the teeth). For the same reason, tiny pieces of food remain in the mouth, which rot and provoke inflammation of the gums and teeth.
Nicotine also negatively affects the condition of the gums and oral cavity. It changes the pH of saliva and provokes the development of dysbacteriosis. In addition, under the influence of nicotine, inflammatory mediators are activated. The blood vessels that supply the gums and other organs of the oral cavity with nutrients also narrow. For this reason, the gums become vulnerable to gingivitis.
Exogenous factors include injuries and burns of the oral cavity. Taking certain medications can also make the situation worse. One of their side effects is the activation of inflammatory mediators.
Among the endogenous causes of hypertrophic gingivitis are the following:
- poor immunity;
- lack of vitamin C and zinc in the body;
- pathology of the digestive system;
- deformation of bone tissue;
- excessive stress and mental illness;
- diabetes, etc.
Very rarely, gingivitis develops as an independent disease. More often, this disease is a signal of a serious pathology of internal organs and systems or diseases of the oral cavity.
Gum disease can occur at any age. But there are also high-risk groups. These include:
- pregnant women who, against the background of a decrease in immunity and hormonal changes, experience gingivitis;
- women during menstruation;
- girls during puberty;
- taking oral contraceptives for a long time, etc.
Those who have a predisposition to the disease, knowing the causes of gingivitis, can prevent its development.