The oral cavity is covered from the inside with a mucous epithelium, which acts as a protective layer. It ensures the correct response of the body to external stimuli and prevents the penetration of infections into the digestive tract and respiratory tract. When the immune system malfunctions, the epithelium becomes inflamed.
Stomatitis – causes in adults
Both external and internal factors can cause pathological processes in the mucous membranes of the mouth. Stomatitis – causes:
- alcohol abuse;
- non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene;
- dehydration of the oral cavity due to inappropriate toothpaste, brush, rinse;
- low-quality or incorrectly installed prostheses;
- taking diuretics and other drugs that reduce saliva production;
- any injury in the mouth;
- irrational nutrition;
- infectious agents (viruses, fungi, bacteria);
- chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- hormonal pathologies or imbalance in women;
- bronchial asthma;
- chemotherapy and radiation in the treatment of cancer;
- AIDS virus;
- prolonged fever;
- vomiting and diarrhea;
- significant blood loss;
- other lesions of the oral cavity.
Stomatitis – types
In medicine, several forms of the described pathology are distinguished, depending on the causes of its occurrence. The main types of stomatitis:
Sometimes the type of disease in question is called ulcerative. It is characterized by the formation in the mouth of small plaques with a red border and a white-gray coating in the center – aft. The disease can occur in acute and chronic form with periodic relapses. Such stomatitis in adults begins for the following reasons:
- deficiency of vitamins and nutrients in the diet;
- allergic reactions;
- genetic predisposition;
- systemic somatic diseases;
- oral trauma;
- infections, usually viruses.
The presented variant of the pathology is provoked by fungi of the same name. Their active reproduction in the oral cavity is accompanied by specific and very pronounced symptoms, which helps the doctor to accurately determine what kind of stomatitis is taking place. The surface of the mucous membranes is covered with a loose off-white coating with a curdled structure.
This type of stomatitis is more often diagnosed in children. If it is found in adulthood, the cause of the disease is considered to be an extensive fungal infection of other organs. Because of this, it is necessary to comprehensively eliminate candidal stomatitis – treatment in adults involves the use of not only local pharmacological agents, but also systemic drugs. With a late start of therapy, the disease becomes chronic.
The described type of inflammation is provoked by a group of corresponding viruses. Herpetic stomatitis in adults occurs in mild, moderate and severe forms. It is always accompanied by the formation of small watery vesicles with cloudy contents on the mucous epithelium, which burst over time. Instead of blisters, bright red ulcers with fuzzy edges appear.
This type of stomatitis is caused by the herpes virus, which enters the body in several ways:
This form of the disease occurs against the background of direct contact of the mucous epithelium with an irritant or as an additional sign of a systemic immune response. In the first case, allergic stomatitis in adults often develops as a result of dental procedures using:
- metal alloys containing gold, chromium, palladium, nickel and other materials;
- acrylic structures;
- orthodontic appliances;
- professional pastes and conditioners;
- dyes and similar allergens.
A symptom of a generalized immune response is also sometimes stomatitis – treatment in adults in this situation requires the detection of the main irritant and blocking any contact with it. Local therapy is carried out only after the elimination of the main cause of the inflammatory process, which is played by:
- vegetable pollen;
- animal protein;
- household, building dust;
- chemical compounds;
- tobacco smoke;
- ultraviolet radiation and other factors.
The mucous membranes in the mouth recover very quickly, and saliva has an antimicrobial effect. In this regard, bacterial stomatitis is rarely diagnosed in adults, mainly against the background of prolonged or extensive damage to the epithelial tissue. The following actions can lead to injury:
- biting, scratching, cutting;
- addiction to low-quality alcohol and its surrogates;
- eating too hot food and drinks;
- piercing (lips, cheeks).
Stomatitis – symptoms
The described pathology in adults is accompanied by external signs that have a different structure and appearance in accordance with the causes of the inflammatory process:
- bubbles, blisters;
- curdled plaque;
- areas of mucosal thickening.
These symptoms are more often observed on the inside of the lips, tonsils, cheeks and soft palate. Less commonly, stomatitis is found on and under the tongue. In addition to external clinical manifestations, the disease causes general signs:
- increased salivation;
- unpleasant odor from the mouth;
- intense pain;
- increased body temperature, sometimes up to 39 degrees;
- swelling, redness of the affected epithelium;
- loss of appetite (due to pain);
- burning sensation in the mouth;
- swelling of nearby lymph nodes;
- bleeding from the gums;
- exacerbation of chronic diseases of the oral cavity.
Stomatitis – treatment
Therapy of the considered inflammation is developed by the dentist individually. The doctor will decide how to treat stomatitis after finding out the exact causes of its occurrence. An integrated approach involves the use of local and systemic drugs, including:
- rinse solutions;
- gels, creams and ointments;
- herbal remedies.
How to rinse your mouth with stomatitis?
This procedure is necessary for the antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity, the elimination of purulent or fungal plaque, the normalization of the microflora on the epithelium. As a rinse, it is important to choose a hypoallergenic solution with antiviral activity, so Chlorhexidine is rarely prescribed for stomatitis. Dentists recommend this medication only for the prevention of bacterial complications of the inflammatory process.
- boric acid;
- hydrogen peroxide;
- potassium permanganate;
- Clotrimazole (with candidal form of pathology).
Ointment for stomatitis
Highly concentrated local remedies are needed to disinfect and accelerate the healing of erosions, ulcers or aphthae in the oral cavity. Applying ointments, gels or creams after antiseptic rinses is an effective way to cure stomatitis at an early stage of its progression. Mild forms of the inflammatory process are stopped in just 9-10 days of daily procedures.
Before starting a therapeutic course, it is important to find out what caused stomatitis – treatment in adults includes local preparations with antiviral, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antifungal and even corticosteroid components. Effective ointments, creams and gels:
- Metrogil Denta;
- Viru-Merz Serol;
- Bonafton and others.
Spray from stomatitis
In the middle and severe stages of inflammation, frequent disinfection of the epithelium is necessary. One of the options for treating stomatitis at home is regular treatment of mucous membranes with sprays. Such solutions have a low concentration of active ingredients, but they are applied directly to the damaged areas and are not washed off, so they remain active for a long time.
Stomatitis – topical treatment in adults with sprays:
- Kameton and analogues.
Tablets from stomatitis
Systemic treatment is developed exclusively by a specialist individually. Capsules and tablets for stomatitis in adults are selected depending on the cause that provoked the pathological immune response in the form of inflammation. With a viral origin of the disease, appropriate medications are required:
- Kipferon and others.
Antifungal agents are prescribed if candidal stomatitis is diagnosed – treatment in adults involves the use of such tablets:
- Terbizil and analogues.
Antibiotics are used in exceptional situations when local antimicrobial therapy has been ineffective or stomatitis has been complicated by the addition of an intense bacterial infection. Effective and safe preparations for adult patients of the dentist:
- Kanamycin and other tablets with a wide spectrum of activity.
Folk remedies for stomatitis
Certain types of plant materials have a pronounced antiseptic and wound healing effect. Doctors often recommend herbal teas to relieve stomatitis – home treatment with natural rinses helps relieve pain and instantly reduce inflammation. The basis of such recipes are plants with disinfecting and soothing properties.
Daily rinse solution
- lime blossom – 5 g;
- baking soda – 0.5 tsp;
- chamomile flowers – 5 g;
- water – 180 ml.
Preparation and application
- Mix lime and chamomile flowers.
- Pour the herbal raw material with a glass of boiling water.
- Leave the remedy for 2-3 hours.
- Strain the solution.
- Add soda to liquid.
- Rinse your mouth with the resulting product after each meal.
Stomatitis – treatment in adults at home with ointment
- aloe pulp – 1 teaspoon;
- olive oil – 5 ml;
- lemon juice – 0.5 tsp.
Preparation and application
- Wash and grind a sprig of aloe in a meat grinder, chop with a blender.
- Mix juicy pulp with lemon juice and butter.
- Use the resulting mass as an ointment in the presence of ulcers, erosions and wounds in the oral cavity.
Prevention of stomatitis
An adult should systematically visit a hygienist to remove soft and hard dental deposits, strictly follow the doctor’s recommendations for gum care. Stomatitis in the mouth often occurs against the background of neglecting the standard rules for cleaning and disinfecting mucous membranes. Other disease prevention measures:
- Quit smoking and alcohol abuse.
- Balanced diet.
- Selection of a suitable toothpaste, rinse, brush, flosser.
- Installation of only high-quality prostheses, braces, plates and other orthodontic structures.
- Timely treatment of chronic pathologies.
- Exclusion of contact with allergens.
- Complete rest, stabilization of the emotional state.
- Hormonal control.